That makes it different from all other types. An urban environment is not solely defined by its structures or systems but by the people who compose it. It reacts and interacts with an army in ways that no natural environment can. Military operations often require Army forces to operate in close proximity to a high density of civilians, whose presence, attitudes, actions, and needs in turn affect the conduct of operations.
Civilian populations continually influence, to varying degrees, military operations within an AO. As urban areas increase in size, they become less and less homogenous; therefore, commanders must understand and account for the characteristics of a diverse population whose beliefs and actions may vary based on many factors.
Improving communications with the local population especially using interpreters can improve intelligence gathering and win acceptance of the platoon within that AO. Security requirements might change when these personnel are on vehicles and around digital communication systems. The decisive terrain during a military operation, particularly in stability operations, may be the civilian inhabitants themselves.
Scouts must then understand and accept that every military action or inaction may influence, positively or negatively, the relationship between the urban population and Army forces and, by extension, have a significant impact on mission success. With this awareness, commanders visualize decisions they must make, plan operations, and implement programs. They can take immediate action to maintain support of a friendly populace, gain the support of neutral factions, or neutralize hostile elements.
Unit continuity books maintaining feedback on past operations within the area will provide insight on past successful and unsuccessful missions and their results. HUMINT is a category of intelligence derived from information collected and provided by human sources. All reconnaissance and scout platoon leaders can expect to conduct some form of HCT collection activities to gather the information needed to make decisions in support of the overall mission.
HUMINT activities help the platoon leader shape the AO by providing information that enables him to respond to previously unforeseen threats. These operations rely on the use of both casual and recruited sources of information. These operations use the techniques identified in FM and FM Other resources include AR , which covers policy concerning counterintelligence force protection source operations CFSO , and AR , which outlines policies and procedures governing the conduct of intelligence activities by the Army.
In military urban operations, people EPWs and civilians are the preeminent source of information. Army Restricted U. Government agencies and their contractors only to protect technical or operational information that is for official government use.
August 3, 25 MB FM Asymmetric Warfare Asymmetric threats include— Regional military forces. Paramilitary forces. Guerrillas and insurgents. Criminal groups. Certain civilian groups and individuals. Political parties.
Religious groups. Threat elements will use a number of nontraditional approaches in conducting asymmetric warfare, including the following: Information operations IO. Weapons of mass destruction WMD. Operations in complex terrain. Civilian involvement include hiding within the population and staging evasive attacks. Urban Considerations The distinct characteristics of the urban environment are primarily a function of the following factors: The increasing size and global prevalence of urban areas.
The combinations of man-made features and supporting infrastructure superimposed on the existing natural terrain. The density of civilians in close proximity to combat forces. HUMINT tasks include, but are not limited to, the following: Source operations using tactical and other developed sources. Liaison with HN officials and allied counterparts. Elicitation of information from the civilian populace, including transients.
Identification of individuals as potential force protection sources.
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Debriefing of U. Interrogation of EPWs and detainees. The Pentagon press release accompanying the excerpts states that a investigation into the manuals concluded that "two dozen short passages in six of the manuals, which total pages, contained material that either was not or could be interpreted not to be consistent with U.
The army manual excerpts highlighted by the Pentagon advocate tactics such as executing guerrillas, blackmail, false imprisonment, physical abuse, use of truth serum to obtain information and payment of bounties for enemy dead. Counterintelligence agents are advised that one of their functions is "recommending targets for neutralization," a term which is defined in one manual as "detaining or discrediting" but which "was commonly used at the time as a euphemism for execution or destruction," according to a Pentagon official Washington Post , September 21, What is not included in these excerpts, however, is the larger context.
The seven army manuals train Latin American militaries to infiltrate and spy upon civilians, including student groups, unions, charitable organizations and political parties; to confuse armed insurgencies with legal political opposition; and to disregard or get around any laws regarding due process, arrest and detention. What the manuals leave out is as important as what they include, and what they leave out is any understanding of democracy and the rule of law. The release of the seven army manuals was the result of extensive public and congressional pressure. The manuals were mentioned in a passing reference in the President's advisory Intelligence Oversight Board's June report on Guatemala; this report was made public in response to the high level of interest and pressure from human rights and grassroots organizations.
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Representative Joseph Kennedy D-MA then asked the administration to declassify the manuals in their entirety. The seven Spanish-language manuals were drafted in by U. Army military intelligence officers in Panama. They were based in part on lesson plans used by SOA instructors since The manuals as well as the SOA lesson plans, in turn, were also based in part on older material dating back to the s from "Project X," the U.
The U. The manuals were used by U. Examples from in El Salvador have been inserted into "Counterintelligence," but in some manuals there are references that do not seem to have been updated since the s.
The unstated aim of the manuals is to train Latin American militaries to identify and suppress anti-government movements. Throughout the eleven hundred pages of the manuals, there are few mentions of democracy, human rights, or the rule of law. Instead, the manuals provide detailed techniques for infiltrating social movements, interrogating suspects, surveillance, maintaining military secrecy, recruiting and retaining spies, and controlling the population. While the excerpts released by the Pentagon are a useful and not misleading selection of the most egregious passages, the ones most clearly advocating torture, execution and blackmail, they do not provide adequate insight into the manuals' highly objectionable framework.
In the name of defending democracy, the manuals advocate profoundly undemocratic methods. A lack of distinction between civilian movements and armed rebellion. Perhaps the most persistent and nefarious aspect of the manuals is the lack of distinction between legitimate political and civic opposition and armed rebellion.
The "Counterintelligence" manual, for example, defines as potential counterintelligence targets "local or national political party teams, or parties that have goals, beliefs or ideologies contrary or in opposition to the National Government," or "teams or hostile organizations whose objective is to create dissension or cause restlessness among the civilian population in the area of operations. Throughout the manuals, refugees and displaced persons are highlighted as possible subversives who should be monitored.
Universities are described as breeding grounds for terrorists, and priests and nuns are identified as having been involved in terrorist operations. The militaries are advised to infiltrate youth groups, student groups, labor unions, political parties and community organizations. Even electoral activity is suspect: The insurgents "can resort to subverting the government by means of elections in which the insurgents cause the replacement of an unfriendly government official to one favorable to their cause"; "insurgent activity" can include funding campaigns and participating in political races as candidates.
One of the most pernicious passages, in "Combat Intelligence," lists various indicators of guerilla presence. Indications that insurgents are conducting psychological operations include accusations of government corruption, circulating petitions, attempts to discredit the government or armed forces, calling government leaders U. Thus any expression of criticism of the government, armed forces or U.
This manual recommends drawing maps that use different colors to depict the civilian population as "loyal to the government," "ambivalent," "possibly loyal to the insurgents" and "areas controlled by the insurgents.
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Superficial treatment of legal and human rights considerations. In certain passages, legal and human rights considerations appear to have been added after the fact or in a superficial manner. For example, the Geneva convention is inserted at the beginning of "Interrogation," and the rights of a suspect being interrogated are mentioned repeatedly in the "Counter-intelligence" sections that are specifically devoted to interrogation. These references, however, are not integrated into the text in most of the manuals and are contradicted in other passages.
U.S. Army Reconnaissance and Surveillance Handbook
At times the manuals present a distorted picture of human rights conventions. For example, readers are taught that an insurgent "Does not have a legal status as a prisoner of war under the Geneva convention," implying that there are no international conventions covering their treatment. Ignoring the rule of law. However, in most of the discussions of techniques, legal considerations are simply absent. For example, throughout the manuals there is discussion of detaining suspects without mention of proper procedures for arrest, obtaining admissible evidence, trial and conviction.
There is no mention of warrants or the right to contact an attorney or any comparable local laws. In fact, it is recommended throughout that detainees be kept in isolation and not be allowed to contact anyone.
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The interrogator may use a false name and at no time has to offer the detainee a reason for being detained. The description of the holding facilities in several of the manuals makes it clear that these are clandestine jails. Few distinctions are made between the treatment of armed guerillas and civilians. At no time do the manuals state that the person detained or arrested must first be suspected of having committed an illegal activity. The only rationale needed for arrest or detention is that the intelligence agent needs some kind of information from the person.
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Advocating spying on and controlling the civilian population. There is absolutely no discussion of the propriety of spying on and infiltrating civilian groups; instead, it is actively advocated in a number of the manuals. Throughout the manuals, there is little discussion of the proper relationship between the civilian government and military authorities.